258 POLITICAL SCIENCE. velopment, nor does anything show that a unitary state can break up into a confederation. A confederation is a union of bodies politic that have certain resemblances and certain differences, tendencies to come together and tendencies to remain apart. If they have a community of language, law and general civilization, similar political views and a similar experience, together with interests that can be reconciled, they can form a close union, which alone after a lapse of time ensures the perpetuity of their political forms. If one or more of these are wanting or should in time come to be wanting, a loose .union is all they can hope to form, or if they succeed in forming a close union, it will scarcely be able to continue. History shows especially the dangers attending any union where one member is vastly greater or more favqr- ably situated for action than the others ; it cannot fail to swallow them up. Something depends also on the national character, if the conservative forces of a union are to prevail over destructive forces. Thus individualism, a want of def- erence and of the spirit of concession, lawless self-asser- tion, must be an isolating, disruptive force in confederations as well as in states. In the former, the bond of union is the weakest point and gives way first before opposing powers ; in the latter, violence in society is the great evil, but cannot destroy a state, unless civil confusion opens the road-to a conqueror from without. The danger of consolidation is a very possible one, but it supposes either violent conquest from within or the oblitera- tion of differences that existed before the union. If the for- mer be supposed to take place, it must be due to great evils, to degeneracy and corruption, and the conquest will be a violent irregular relief from unendurable evils ; if the latter, it will be a gradual, natural process, a substitution for more complicated machinery. We only add that confederation is limited to states under certain constitutions. Two or more absolute states cannot enter into a union which is a perpetual limitation of human will; and the freer states are, other things being equal, the more easily do they coalesce.